In the realm of photography, the term “light” is frequently mentioned in nearly every discussion, particularly during the learning process. Phrases like “Light is everything” or “This image showcases exquisite lighting” are repeatedly emphasised. As we delve into photography, we are taught to carefully assess and gauge the quality of light. However, in our preoccupation with light, we often overlook its contrasting counterpart: shadow.
Back in the era of film photography, we were limited by a narrower range of brightness levels. However, with the advancements in digital sensor technology, this dynamic range is continuously expanding. Several reviews of Canon cameras with Canon RF lenses have been swift to point out the company’s lag behind Nikon in this aspect. Nevertheless, in our quest for images with reduced shadow intensity and enhanced overall detail, are we overlooking the essence of a photograph? It is the interplay between light and shadow that truly brings dimension to an image.
When the moon is in its full phase, it serves as an excellent portrayal of this concept.
When the light falls directly on the moon from the front, there is no shadow cast, resulting in a flat and two-dimensional appearance. However, if you observe the moon when it is not in its full phase, you will be able to see its surface with craters and distinctive shapes.
The reason behind this is that the light source is positioned at an angle, resulting in the formation of shadows on the moon’s surface. This interplay between light and shadow enhances the moon’s appearance, giving it a three-dimensional aspect.
Shaping the landscape
When it comes to landscape photography, the same principle applies. While beginners are often advised to position themselves with the light directly behind them, this approach tends to result in vibrant, but somewhat flat images. In reality, for a landscape to truly come to life with depth and definition, it is best to illuminate it from an angle. This technique can create intriguing shadows and emphasise specific elements within the scene, selectively highlighting certain aspects while leaving others in darkness. This allows for a more captivating composition, distinguishing the exceptional from the ordinary, as the saying goes.
On a turbulent day in Slovenia, the photograph captures a captivating scene where the dark, ominous storm clouds surrounding the church create a stark contrast. The strategic positioning of the church allows it to stand out prominently against the background, especially the church spire. Time was of the essence, as the strong sidelight illuminated the church, and it was crucial to capture the shot before the light shifted to the hills in the background.
If the hills behind had been illuminated by light, the spire would have seamlessly merged with the backdrop. The lighting from the side and the beams of light stretching across the field in the front create a captivating layered impact, inviting the observer to immerse themselves in the scene.
Take note of how the distribution of light and shadow over the hills emphasises their form, while the interplay of light and dark adds intrigue to the sky, resulting in a more captivating scenery.
Additionally, with the illumination coming from the side, the gentle shading on the right-hand side of the church accentuates the distinct form of the bell tower.
The interplay of direct and diffused lighting
When aiming to highlight specific elements in a scene, shadow or subtle lighting plays a crucial role. This is why days featuring scattered clouds or passing showers are highly favourable for landscape photography. They create a combination of direct and diffused lighting, and if one is fortunate, patient, and observant, Mother Nature can offer assistance in capturing the perfect shot.
In the realm of photography, studio photographers possess exceptional skills in highlighting their subjects. However, nature itself also has the ability to create similar effects under the appropriate circumstances. In the photograph provided above, I patiently observed the movements of the clouds while considering the composition. I strategically positioned my tripod and waited for the rain to subside while sheltered under an umbrella (which, amusingly, caught the attention of passing drivers). Once the rainfall ceased, a gap in the clouds allowed strong side lighting to illuminate the field and cast shadows on the tree. This intense light brought out the vibrant yellow colour of the dandelions and accentuated the shape and form of the tree through the use of side lighting.
Importantly, only a gentle and dispersed illumination graced the trees positioned in the background, delicately accentuating their presence. The lack of intense lighting in the area behind the tree allows for a pleasing contrast and adds a sense of dimension to the entire scene.
Morning side light
During the early morning and late evening, the lighting conditions are generally more favourable. This is primarily due to the softer quality of light and the lower position of the sun, which results in longer shadows being cast over the landscape.
On the Ljubljana Moors in Slovenia, during this particular scene, the sun began to ascend, casting streaks of light across the morning mist. As the mist gradually dissipated around the trio of churches, they radiated with an ethereal glow. However, without the illuminating effect of the side lighting, which accentuated the contours of the undulating mist, it would have appeared as a uniform expanse of white. Additionally, a softly graduated neutral density filter with a four-stop reduction was employed, creating a shadowy effect at the top of the image and drawing attention to the three churches.
Utilising shadows to emphasise a more specific subject
When capturing expansive landscapes through photography, it is common for certain elements within the scene to be at risk of being overlooked. As evidenced in this particular photograph showcasing the churches immersed in mist, the encompassing shadows have unexpectedly brought greater prominence to the two smaller churches and numerous distant buildings. Contrastingly, had the surrounding land been brighter, these subtle details could have easily faded into obscurity. Furthermore, in this image, the elevated church positioned on the top left of the hill would have gone unnoticed if it had not been skillfully illuminated and encircled by shadows.
Even the presence of a shadow in the foreground can create a significant effect. In the photograph shown above, while the background is well-lit, the tree, foreground, and two individuals in the lower right corner are cast in shadow. Surprisingly, the intense light in the background actually accentuates the visibility of the two smaller figures in comparison to the tree.
The individual in the bottom corner of the second photograph now appears to blend more seamlessly into the background, thanks to the more evenly distributed lighting.
In optimal photographic conditions, we have the opportunity to seek out these elements within our composition and patiently anticipate the encirclement of shadows. Additionally, shadows can be utilised to single out a specific area of the scene, effectively highlighting it within our composition.
The pitfalls of HDR imaging
I remember when I first discovered HDR (High Dynamic Range). Like most, I went through this craze. While I always remained reserved when pushing up that details slider, still the focus was on bringing out that shadow detail.
I’m pleased to announce that I have successfully overcome that hurdle. As a result, I have now ceased utilising this particular software after gaining a deeper understanding of shadows. Currently, instead of focusing solely on enhancing shadow details, I frequently find myself enhancing highlights by darkening them. However, this does not imply that we should completely disregard the importance of bringing out shadow details. There are numerous circumstances where this remains a crucial aspect.
However, although HDR, exposure blending, and the utilisation of ND grad filters will forever remain crucial techniques, and I personally still employ the latter two methods, my present approach involves giving equal consideration to both the shadows and the light.
During a foggy morning near Fort Augustus at Loch Ness in Scotland, I captured One of my most popular photos. Initially, I used Photomatix to create the image, but with time and a better understanding of light and shadow, I realised that the HDR process had diminished its depth. To rectify this, I reprocessed the photo by adjusting the curves to enhance contrast and utilising the highlights tool to darken certain areas and accentuate the details. The outcome was remarkable as the wrecked boat gained a new sense of prominence against the backdrop, resulting in an instantly captivating picture.
Disable the HDR feature
Most cameras today come with a built-in HDR function, and I encourage you to switch it off and pay more attention to your shadows, youll be surprised how they are of equal importance to the light.